taxonomy

taxonomy
A taxonomy (or typology) is a classification. To classify social phenomena is not to explain them. For example, sociologists of religion commonly use a taxonomy of religious organizations which embraces the categories of church, denomination, sect, and cult. This classifies religious groupings according to their organizational structure (for example bureaucratic or informal), adjustment to the prevailing order (world-rejecting, world-accommodating, and so forth), and principal mode of recruitment (ascribed membership by birth or achieved membership by voluntary attachment). This particular classification does not explain why certain individuals practise religion, while others do not, nor does it offer a theory of how religious organizations arise or develop. In practice, however, many sociological taxonomies are implicitly aetiological (causal). A well-known example is Durkheim's classification of the types of suicide -egoistic, altruistic, anomic, and fatalistic-a taxonomy which also embodies a theory about why people kill themselves intentionally.

Dictionary of sociology. 2013.

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  • Taxonomy — is the practice and science of classification. The word comes from the Greek Polytonic|τάξις , taxis (meaning order , arrangement ) and Polytonic|νόμος , nomos ( law or science ). Taxonomies, or taxonomic schemes, are composed of taxonomic units… …   Wikipedia

  • Taxonomy — Tax*on o*my (t[a^]ks*[o^]n [ o]*m[y^]), n. [Gr. ta xis an arrangement, order + no mos a law.] 1. That division of the natural sciences which treats of the classification of animals and plants, primarily by consideration of their natural… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Taxonomy — Таксономия в лингвистике метод исследования языка, основанный на систематизации языковых факторов путем вычисления в тексте лингвистических единиц и изучении их свойств в зависимости от их порядка и распределения. См. также: Классификация… …   Финансовый словарь

  • taxonomy — taxonomy. См. таксономия. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • taxonomy — 1828, from Fr. taxonomie (1813), introduced by Linnæus and coined irregularly from Gk. taxis arrangement (see TAXIDERMY (Cf. taxidermy)) + nomia method, from nomos managing, from nemein manage (see NUMISMATICS (Cf. numismatics)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • taxonomy — ► NOUN chiefly Biology 1) the branch of science concerned with classification. 2) a scheme of classification. DERIVATIVES taxonomic adjective taxonomical adjective taxonomist noun. ORIGIN from Greek taxis arrangement + nomia distribution …   English terms dictionary

  • taxonomy — [tak sän′ə mē] n. pl. taxonomies [Fr taxonomie < Gr taxis (see TAXIS) + nomos, law (see NOMY)] 1. the science of classification; laws and principles covering the classifying of objects 2. Biol. a system of arranging animals and plants into… …   English World dictionary

  • taxonomy — taxonomic /tak seuh nom ik/, taxonomical, adj. taxonomically, adv. taxonomist, taxonomer, n. /tak son euh mee/, n. 1. the science or technique of classification. 2. Biol. the science dealing with the description, identification, naming, and… …   Universalium

  • taxonomy — n. [Gr. taxis, arrangement; nomos, law] The study of the theory, procedure, and rules of classification of organisms, based on similarities and differences; see classical taxonomy, cytotaxonomy, numerical taxonomy, experimental taxonomy,… …   Dictionary of invertebrate zoology

  • taxonomy —    Most political analysis begins with a taxonomy, a set of categories that classifies phenomena or data (for example, the different varieties of pressure groups) into different types. Categories should ideally be exhaustive, mutually exclusive… …   Glossary of UK Government and Politics

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